Antidotes | Principles and Clinical Applications | Taylor & Francis GroupAn understanding of mechanisms, potential benefits and risks of antidotes is essential for clinicians who manage poisoned patients. Of the dozens of antidotes currently available, only a few are regularly used. These include activated charcoal, acetylcysteine, naloxone, sodium bicarbonate, atropine, flumazenil, therapeutic antibodies and various vitamins. Even then, most are used in a minority of poisonings. There is little randomized trial evidence to support the use of most antidotes. Consequently, decisions about when to use them are often based on a mechanistic understanding of the poisoning and the expected influence of the antidote on the patient's clinical course. For some antidotes, such as atropine and insulin, the doses employed can be orders of magnitude higher than standard dosing.
Who gets antidotes? choosing the chosen few
Cite article How to cite. A final problem is the interference with therapeutic effects of the target or other drugs. Heavy metals, bacterial and fungal toxi. Give charcoal to prevent ongoing absorption.Clin Toxicol ; -92 Google Scholar! The required duration of therapy will be determined by the amount of opioid ingested and its elimination rate, and the degree of individual tolerance to opioids 2. Look up antidote in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. No notes for slide.
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Iron poisoning. SlideShare Explore Search You. Ann Emerg Med ; 64 : -8 e2. Kosnett MJ! Acute iron poisoning.
Poisonings are a common problem. In , over 2 million exposures were reported to American poison information centres alone. The majority of poisoning exposures can be treated without major therapeutic intervention. If therapy is indicated, it is usually in the form of gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal, to prevent absorption of the toxin and the subsequent toxicity that may occur. In a limited number of cases, more aggressive life-support measures may be necessary to treat the adverse effects of poisons. Occasionally, that intervention may include the use of pharmacological antagonists, more commonly referred to as antidotes. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers, the most commonly used antidotes are acetylcysteine, naloxone, atropine, deferoxamine desferrioxamine and antivenins.
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Antidotes should be used only when they are indicated and may help a patient. Effectiveness and safety of intravenous nalmefene for emergency department patients with suspected narcotic overdose: a pilot study? This has resulted in premedication being used prior to antivenom administration Phytomenadione vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma.Interacts with the poison to form a non toxic complex that can be excreted Chelators 2. Hazards of antagonizing narcotic sedation with naloxone [letter]. Extrapyramidal reactions associated with antipsychotics. Antibodies in human diagnosis and therapy.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Lancet ; : - Isoniazid poisoning, ethylene glycol. Management of childhood lead poisoning: clinical impact and cost-effectiveness.